I am not sure of all the kinds of herbs they carried on the trail. I rounded up a bunch of different herbs. I found wonderful pictures and that was the main reason some of them are in this post.
First, two maps.
All the rest of the pictures are from Wikipedia Commons.
The most common item used for food was salt. It was used in cooking and for preserving meats.
Black pepper comes in handy.
Bay leaves can be used for a lot of soups, stews and other things. The leaves have to be removed before the food is eaten. You can choke on them.
Parsley is good for clearing one’s breath. It is also used in foods. It can be dried and used that way.
Sage grows readily and could have been used.
Rosemary grows well and could have been used.
And last, a bundle of thyme by, Evan-Amos.